USBONG BALITA
BALITA
THU | 2024-05-23

https://digital.asahi.com... ; last accessed: 20240518


(天声人語)カンニングとひみつ道具
VOX POPULI: Cheating and the secret tool

https://digital.asahi.com... ; last accessed: 20240518


(天声人語)カンニングとひみつ道具

VOX POPULI: Cheating and the secret tool

2024年5月17日 5時00分

2024-05-17T05:00

 明日のテストで0点になるのは、どうしても避けたい。のび太は、タイムマシンで1週間後の出木杉くんの部屋に忍び込む作戦をたてる。返却された100点の解答を写せばいい。藤子・F・不二雄さんの『ドラえもん』である▼

I want to avoid getting a zero in my test tomorrow, whatever the means! Nobita is devising a plan to use the Time Machine to hide in his classmate Dekisugi's room a week after the exam. He has to copy the answers in the 100-point test paper that was returned to Dekisugi. This is from Ms. FUJIO, Fujiko F.'s manga comics, "Doraemon".▼

### MORE

However, when he went to the room, another version of himself was there, and was being talked down in this way. "Looking at another person's answers to get a hundred points! Don't ever think that this is anything great!" To this, Nobita replied, "I don't have any other way to survive than to look at your answers!" It was the angel and demon in himself. Could there have also been conflict between these two inside of himself at the time?▼

For a boy taking the entrance exam at Waseda University to cheat, he had to use the "Smart Glasses", a secret tool from Doraemon. Using the eye glasses with attached camera and transmitter, he got hold of the questions that it leaked outside the department, and then wrote down the answers that other people had solved. Suspected of obstructing the examinations, his documents were re-evaluated.▼

"Failing the National University Entrance Exams, he worried that he'll fail in the other universities too." He thought that he'll end up living the life of a Ronin, someone without yet a school. He was at the time a senior high school student. What could have driven him to such folly? Could he have thought that there wasn't any other way left for him than to cheat?▼

I want to say something about what happened afterwards in our "Doraemon" story. Nobita eventually thought that he could only do what he could. So Doraemon took out the "Time Gate", a tool that was like a flood gate that could slow down the flow of time. He got 65 points after studying all night for the test. He cried, saying, "His own ability is only until that level."

Child, I want you to grab hold of the 37th Chapter of the Ladybug Comics. While no such secret tools exist, there's still plenty of time to change for the better.

### REFERENCE

1) GOOGLE SEARCH ENGINE; TRANSLATE

https://digital.asahi.com... ; last accessed: 20240517


プロバイオティクス製剤の処方に注意 まれに菌血症の原因に 阪大
Caution with prescribing Probiotics due to rare Bacteremia disease, Osaka team

https://digital.asahi.com... ; last accessed: 20240517


プロバイオティクス製剤の処方に注意 まれに菌血症の原因に 阪大

Caution with prescribing Probiotics due to rare Bacteremia disease, Osaka team

瀬川茂子

SEGAWA, Shigeko

2024年5月16日 14時00分

2024-05-16T14:00

プロバイオティクス製剤と呼ばれる薬に含まれる細菌が、血液に入り込んで「菌血症」の原因となりうることを大阪大のグループが確認した。とくに免疫の働きが落ちている患者などには適切な処方を考えてほしいとしている。

The team at Osaka University has confirmed that bacteria in the medicine called "Probiotics" could, after entering the blood, cause the "Bacteremia (bacteria in the blood) disease." They want medical doctors to consider writing prescriptions appropriate for patients whose immune systems have long since weakened accordingly.

 プロバイオティクス製剤は細菌の働きなどによって、整腸や抗生物質による下痢の予防などさまざまな効果が報告され、広く使われている。

Probiotics continue to be widely used. Based on reports on the activities of the bacteria, the effects of using Probiotics include prevention of diarrhea due to its capability to assist the intestines and its use of antibiotics.

 グループは、2022年、発熱などの症状から菌血症を疑った入院中の患者の血液を培養して、クロストリジウム・ブチリカムという細菌を見つけた。この細菌は、患者が処方されていたプロバイオティクス製剤の成分だが、環境中にも存在するため、製剤が菌血症の原因かどうかはわからなかった。

In 2022, the team cultured the blood of patients who had been admitted in the hospital and who were suspected of having the Bacteremia disease after the onset of fever and such symptoms. What they found was that the bacteria called "Clostridium butyricum" was present in patients' blood. This bacteria is a component of the Probiotics prescribed to patients, and also exists in the environment, but was not known at the time whether it caused Bacteremia.

## MORE

The team investigated the database of patients who had Bacteremia while hospitalized at the affiliate Hospital of the Osaka University Medical School from 2011 to 2023. In the blood culture of 6576 people whom bacteria was detected, they found five who had this type of bacteria. All had been prescribed Probiotics.

Analyzing the bacteria genome detected from the blood of the five patients, and after comparing this with the bacteria of the Probiotics, they found that there was little difference between the two, such that it's now presumed that the bacteria originally came from the Probiotics and had gone into the patients' blood. The patients were admitted in the hospital for diseases like Cancer and kidney problems, and whose immune systems were failing.

Associate Prof. SADA, Ryuichi says on behalf of their team, "A variety of effects result from using Probiotics. We learned, however, that the rare Bacteremia can be found in patients whose immune system is failing while admitted in the hospital. What we want is to avoid unnecessary prescriptions, whatever medicine it may be."

The paper is published in a US specialized magazine (https://doi.org/10.3201/eid3004.231633; last accessed: 20240517). (SEGAWA, Shigeko)

### USBONG NOTE

1) English language of published paper in "Emerging Infectious Diseases: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention";

### REFERENCE

1) GOOGLE SEARCH ENGINE; TRANSLATE



https://digital.asahi.com... ; last accessed: 20240514


コンビニあす誕生50年 1号店オーナーが語る、便利さ追求の半世紀
The convenience store is celebrating its 50th birthday, Store Owner#1 speaks about half a century of pursuing convenience

https://digital.asahi.com... ; last accessed: 20240514


コンビニあす誕生50年 1号店オーナーが語る、便利さ追求の半世紀

The convenience store is celebrating its 50th birthday, Store Owner#1 speaks about half a century of pursuing convenience

井東礁

ITO, Sho

2024年5月14日 6時00分

2024-05-14T06:00

日本で本格的なコンビニチェーンが生まれてから、15日で50年となる。今や全国で約5万7千店まで増え、生活に欠かせないインフラとなったコンビニ。その1号店のオーナーが13日のイベントで、半世紀の歩みを振り返った。

On the 15th, it'll be the 50th year since the true convenience store chain was born in Japan. The stores have increased to about 57,000 all over Japan, and its infrastructure has become essential to daily living. During the celebration on the 13th, Store Owner#1 reflected on the path they've taken since half a century ago.

 日本で初めて近代的なフランチャイズ(FC)方式のコンビニを展開したセブン―イレブンで、志願して1号店のオーナーになったのが山本憲司さん(74)。24歳の時、家業の酒店を改装して東京・豊洲で開業した。

In Japan, the very first convenience store that opened with a modern franchise model was 7-Eleven. This was due to the aspiration of Mr. YAMAMOTO, Kenji (74), Store Owner#1. When he was 24 years old, he renovated the family liquor store, opening the convenience store for business in Toyosu, Tokyo.

 「当時はとにかく何事も挑戦でした」。コンビニは米国から「輸入」した業態で、当初は何を売ったらいいかも分からなかった。まず店頭に並べたのは、スーパーの売れ筋だった缶詰や洗剤など。午前7時から午後11時まで営業していたことから、テレビ番組で「深夜スーパー」と紹介されることもあったという。

"At the time, however, everything was a challenge." The convenience store was "imported" from America, and at the start, we didn't know what to sell. What we first lined up at the storefront were things like canned goods and cleaning detergents which were best-sellers at the Supermarket. We did business from 7:00 AM until 11:00 PM, and also got introduced on the "Midnight Supermarket" TV show.

## MORE

However, as the business continued, they noticed that many of the customers were young, and the store's best-sellers turned out to be different from those at the Supermarket. "While we also sold large-sized cleaning detergents, our customers chose to buy the small-sized ones."

They continued developing their own business, and in 1978, Seven launched their first hit product, which was the hand-made onigiri rice balls "made at home."

Unlike the Supermarket, the idea of a convenience store became much more well-established with the introduction of the so-called "payment center" which was a public utility bills payment service in 1987 and whose launch turned out to be "the most effective" in this regard. By this time, they not only sold food and daily merchandise, they also turned to "offering various services."

Owners could propose products and services to headquarters based on their local context. One of those voices led to Seven putting an ATM in the store in 2001. Other convenience stores had also introduced it, but it had not yet proliferated as much. Even during the liquor store years, they worked until 9:00 in the evening, and he wondered whether it was really "a joke" that banks finished their teller services at 3:00PM.

Through half a century, even the convenience store that pursued convenience was inferior to the Supermarket when competing in price, and was "not an all-purpose store." Therefore, "building the fan base of our own store was incredibly important. We studied it well and achieved a track-record, which led to customers choosing our store."

The number of local convenience stores increased as they competed with big companies to open more stores, reaching a plateau in 2005. Attributing this to saturation, many companies began to look for ways to grow in new areas.

The key is digital technology. Since 2021, the Family Mart has opened the "store without personnel" where employees are not stationed in front of the cash register. By putting an easy-to-find entrance and exit locations, as well as adding roof cameras and weight sensors on the product shelves, it became possible to identify what products customers took. The products that they're buying are displayed at exit terminals, and it's possible to pay in cash or go cashless.

Store personnel need only replenish the supplies of the products at the store, "reducing the human labor cost, and acting as a counter-measure against lack of personnel too. (Public Relations)" At a typical store, it's difficult to make a profit, but they found that this is much easier to do with a small-sized store. Now, there are 39 stores located in places like train station buildings and university facilities.

LAWSON has put in the effort to expand and fully utilize remote interaction with customers using avatars. While formerly a subsidiary of the Mitsubishi corporation, the company has received investments from Mitsubishi and the telecommunications company KDDI at 50% each. The aim is to create a new service using also KDDI technology from hereon.

In addition, together with these three big companies, they're also exerting effort in the overseas market. Seven has opened over 10,000 stores in Thailand, the US and South Korea. There are a total of 63,000 stores in 19 countries and regions. By 2030, the objective is "10,000 stores in 30 countries and regions," including Japan. At the Investors' meeting the previous month, the 7-Eleven International LLC Chief for Overseas Business Mr. ABE, Shinji said, "I want to accelerate the opening of stores in new countries at a completely different pace from what has been done up until now."

Family Mart has opened a total of about 7,800 stores in Asia beginning with Taiwan (over 4,000 stores). LAWSON has about 7,300 stores overseas, occupying close to 90% of China, and has plans to increase its number of stores to 10,000 by 2025. (ITO, Sho)

### REFERENCE

1) GOOGLE SEARCH ENGINE; TRANSLATE

https://digital.asahi.com... ; last accessed: 20240509


「武器を外国に売らない」ことこそ大切な倫理的価値、経済学者が強調
Economist emphasizes the reason why "Japan does not sell weapons abroad"

https://digital.asahi.com... ; last accessed: 20240509


「武器を外国に売らない」ことこそ大切な倫理的価値、経済学者が強調

Economist emphasizes the reason why "Japan does not sell weapons abroad"

聞き手・小村田義之

Reporter: KOMURATA, Yoshiyuki

2024年5月9日 7時00分

2024-05-09T07:00

日本は武器輸出大国へと変貌(へんぼう)を遂げようとしているのでしょうか。経済学者として武器移転の歴史を研究してきた東大名誉教授の小野塚知二さんは日本の限界を指摘しつつ、「武器を外国に売らない」ことこそ、大切な倫理的価値なのだと語っています。

Is Japan turning into a giant of weapons exporting? Having done research work on the history of weapons transfer, Economist and renowned University of Tokyo Professor Mr. ONOZUKA, Tomoji says that it's reasonable that "Japan does not sell weapons abroad," pointing out Japan's limiting factors.

――日本が武器を輸出できる「普通の国」になるのは、「愚者の選択」だと指摘してきましたね。なぜ愚かだと思うのですか。

Q: You've pointed out that it's "a fool's decision" to make Japan into the "usual nation" that can export weapons, right? Why do you think it's foolish?

 「そもそも日本にとって望ましいのは、国民の消費が伸びて発展するという消費主導型の経済です。ところが、武器輸出は投資主導型で、国が投資し続け、赤字国債が増えて、一部の兵器企業だけがうるおう。健全な経済とは言えません」

"First and foremost, what Japan hopes is an economy that is guided by consumption, and which is developed by increasing people's consumption. However, because weapons exporting is guided by investments, the country's national deficit increases with continues investment, albeit only a portion of the weapons business can make a profit. This cannot be said to be sound economics."

 「さらにいえば、抑止力が成り立つのは相手次第です。抑止力とは、相手がこちら側の力を恐れるか否かに依存しており、こちら側で一方的に決めることはできないのです。日本が軍備を増強し、さらに日本製の武器を輸入する国が増えたところで、中国や北朝鮮、ロシアが態度を変えるでしょうか。むしろ硬化して、安全保障環境が悪化するはずです」

"Furthermore, establishing control depends on the partner. Control depends on whether our partner is afraid of our power or not, such that this cannot be decided only by ourselves. With Japan strengthening its military armaments, and with the increase of countries who import these Japan-made products, the stance of China, North Korea and Russia could change. However, with their solidification, security should worsen."

 ――武器移転の歴史を研究してきて、そう思うわけですね。

Q: That's how you see it after doing research work on the history of weapons transfer, correct?

 「歴史的にみると、武器移転は金銭的対価を伴わず、貸与・無償供与という形をとることが多いことに気づきます」

"Historically, weapons transfer does not go together with monetary considerations. What I noticed instead was that there are many cases where supplies are lent and donated."

 ――なぜですか。

Q: Why is this so?

## MORE

"It's so that the partner country would be under it's control. Once the weapons are taken, dependency on the training for the soldiers that use the weapons, as well as their repair and replenishment cannot anymore be severed. Because of this, while they may have only been lent initially, a full-fledged business will soon be established. This aspect in weapons transfer also exists."

Q: As to whether peace can also be secured using weapons?

"Needless to say, weapons are tools whose purpose is to destroy and kill. When that method proliferates, I think that it's natural to consider that there'll also be a rise in the risk of war. Originally, such a method would be chosen according to the objective and strategy of the nation; however, by having the weapons, the nation's strategy, in actuality, ends up becoming the one that is regulated."

## Relying only on the military is the failure of diplomacy

Q: You say that weapons proliferation ends up regulating the actual situation itself.

"For example, what I feel to be the danger with guns in US society is that gun regulations are mild. In Japan, where rules are strict, such a thing would be unthinkable. Even in the military, with the proliferation of weapons comes the increase in the risk, and the conditions for peace are lost. Therefore, as much as possible, there should be no weapons transfer. It's a simple reason, but a fundamental line of thought."

Q: It's said that "military affairs and diplomacy go together."

"It'll be a tragedy if Japanese diplomacy is thought of in that way. How can war be prevented and peace maintained using discussion, culture, diplomacy among peoples without relying on the military whatsoever? Thinking about that is the way of diplomacy. I think that right from the start, relying only on the military is the failure of diplomacy."

"Unfortunately, near Japan, there are nations whose human rights, democracy and freedom of expression are suppressed, and where the political and social cost of a soldier's life is low. Countries who have difficulty carrying the military and government responsibility for the loss of a soldier's life can just throw away the lives of as many soldiers as they want. With this type of partner, we ought to first put up the premise that "We don't go to war." In this case, thinking that we can establish safety and security by increasing our power of control has a sense of delusion, where we can only really be strong domestically.

## Pointing to Japan as the so-called 'Trojan Horse' of US intervention?

Q: Do you think Japan will be a big weapons exporting country?

"I don't think so. Weapons exporting is Japan's weakest area of expertise. After the war, Japan was not trusted by other nations, and therefore did not have experience exporting weapons, providing training, as well as doing repairs and replenishing supplies. It's also a delusion to think that joint development of next-generation fighter jets is 'equal partnership', even between Japan, England and Italy."

"There's also America. If good technology can come out of developing next-generation fighter jets, America would likely intervene. The US has been putting pressure on Japan 'to produce the technology.' Looking at England and Italy, Japan is only going to likely be the so-called 'Trojan Horse' of US intervention."

Q: England and Italy also have relations with the US. What could be different with Japan?

"They're already big weapons exporting countries and have established the North-Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to face up to US influence. Looking at their cooperation agreements with the US, they're much more independent than Japan."

"It's a delusion to say that Japan is independent from America, and is developing and producing weapons to become a big weapons exporting country. Under the protection of the US, that would never be permitted."

Q: The problem with weapons exporting is that it's also tied with Japan being a country that has them.

"To tell you the truth, during the discussions, this idea has started to veer away from global knowledge. It's common knowledge that military affairs are all about weapons and being able to export them to other nations. It doesn't matter if they are capable of killing and causing harm."

"But having a discussion itself shows that this problem is important for Japan. 'We do not sell weapons to foreign countries' is beginning to have reasonable sense. It's a basic universal ideal stipulated in the 9th section of the constitution. In weapons exporting, the peace shared among nations is compromised. And if it's something that can be easily thrown away like cleaning cloth, then it creates a negative impact on Japanese security. If so, it's not a matter that is to be decided together with the cabinet. It's perhaps at least necessary to thoroughly deliberate it with the National Diet." (Reporter: KOMURATA, Yoshiyuki)

     ◇

ONOZUKA, Tomoji was born in 1957, and is an Economic Historian and renowned Professor with special appointment at the University of Tokyo. His main book publications include "Economic History", "A Re-examination of the Reason for Starting the First World War", "Japanese-English Weapons Industry and the Siemens Incident: The International Economic History of Weapons Transfer", etc. Researching on the global incident of stray cats, he inquires on whether the extermination of stray cats is happiness for both cats and humans.

### REFERENCE

1) GOOGLE SEARCH ENGINE; TRANSLATE

https://digital.asahi.com... ; last accessed: 20240508


「賢い」は愚か? 記事点検での闘い 誤字脱字を見落とさないために
Is "intelligent" stupid? How not to overlook errors when doing proofreading?

https://digital.asahi.com... ; last accessed: 20240508


「賢い」は愚か? 記事点検での闘い 誤字脱字を見落とさないために

Is "intelligent" stupid? How not to overlook errors when doing proofreading?

2024年5月7日 6時00分

2024-05-07T06:00

メディア空間考 小林正典

Thoughts on the Media Space; KOBAYASHI, Masanori

 3月まで校閲の担当だった。記事の誤字脱字や不適切な表現などを点検し、事実関係も確認する。

I was in-charge of proofreading until March of this year. I checked news reports for spelling errors and inappropriate expressions. I also verified their truthfulness.

 それが仕事だから、忙しい記者がうっかりしてしまった勘違いや間違いがもしあれば漏らさず見つけ出さないといけない。でも、目を皿のようにして点検したつもりでも、誤りを見落としてしまったことはある。ほとんどが他の人が見つけてくれて事なきを得たが、その度に自分の無力さを痛感した。そして、次は同じミスをしないようにとノートに書き留める。

It was part of my job to find errors inadvertently committed by busy reporters, making sure that reports were not disseminated if they had any. But even if I intended to check them meticulously, there were times when I failed to see the errors. While almost all of these were caught by other people, and they didn't have much wide repercussions, I did feel my own powerlessness when such things did occur. It was then that I'd write notes, so that I won't commit the same mistakes again.


言い訳するつもりではまったくないが、その誤りを含んだ箇所も確かに一文字ずつ潰すようにチェックしていた。目には間違いなく誤りが映っていたはずだ。でも、その情報がまるで「自動変換」されたかのように、脳内で半ば勝手に誤字は直され、脱字は補われ、正しく読みかえられていたのだろうか、素通りしてしまった。ある意味で、脳が「賢い」働きをするからこそ私は愚かだ、ということなのか。

While I'm not here to make any excuses at all, I did check each and every letter in the parts that had the errors, removing all that I could. My eyes had certainly been at fault then. But it could be that such things may have been "changed automatically", where I had half-corrected the errors in my mind, adding the omitted letters, and then went through the text thinking that I had already corrected them. In a certain sense, does this mean that I'm stupid because the human mind moves so "intelligently"?

 ただ、日常生活を送る上では、こうした頭の働きが役に立っているのかもしれない。いつもとちょっとだけ違うことがいちいち気になっていたら、ストレス過多で暮らしにくくなりかねない。これも人間が進化の過程で獲得してきた能力の一つなのだろうか。

Perhaps the mind moves in such a way because it's useful for daily living. If I worried about each little deviation that occurred from the usual, it'll likely be much more difficult to live life because of too much stress. This could have been one of those abilities that human beings have acquired in the process of evolution.

 とは書いたものの、誤りを全力で防がなければならない立場としては、やはりこれは言い訳になってしまう。新聞も商品であり、誤りが許されるわけではもちろんない。でも、校閲の現場に身を置いた者として思うのは、商品に欠陥がないとすれば、誰かが自身の自動補正能力と闘いながら必死にそれを防いでくれた結果だろうということだ。記事を書く側になり、まずは自分で誤りを生まないようにせねばと思った。

While my stance has been to prevent errors as best as I could, I know that writing this piece itself ends up turning into an excuse. Of course, news articles are also commercial products, where errors are not permitted. But as someone who's been put to the task of doing proofreading, I think that when commercial products don't have a single defect whatsoever, it means that someone has seriously fought with his own natural correcting ability. After becoming part of the team that writes news articles, I thought that I first needed to make sure that I myself didn't commit mistakes.

     ◇

こばやし・まさのり 1999年入社で、今年4月からオピニオン編集部記者。哲学ってなんて身近で面白い!と知ってもらえたらと願う一人。

KOBAYASHI, Masanori joined the Asahi Shimbun company in 1999. Since April of this year, he's been part of the Opinion Columns and Editorial team. He's a person who prays for readers to know that philosophy is interesting close-by!

### REFERENCE

1) GOOGLE SEARCH ENGINE; TRANSLATE